Varicose veins are swollen, twisted veins that you can see just under the skin.They usually occur in the legs, but also can form in other parts of the body. Hemorrhoids are a type of varicose vein.Your veins have one-way valves that help keep blood flowing toward your heart. If the valves are weak or damaged, blood can back up and pool in your veins. This causes the veins to swell, which can lead to varicose veins.

Risk factors

  • Age. The risk of varicose veins increases with age. Aging causes wear and tear on the valves in your veins that then allows some blood to flow back into your veins where it collects instead of flowing up to your heart.
  • Sex. Women are more likely to develop the condition. Hormonal changes during pregnancy, premenstruation or menopause may be a factor because female hormones tend to relax vein walls. 
  • Pregnancy. During pregnancy, the volume of blood in your body increases. This change supports the growing fetus, but also can produce an unfortunate side effect — enlarged veins in your legs. Hormonal changes during pregnancy may also play a role. 
  • Positive Family history. If other family members (parents and siblings) have varicose veins, there’s a greater chance you will too.
  • Obesity. Being overweight puts added pressure on your veins.
  • Standing or sitting for long periods of time. Your blood doesn’t flow as well if you’re in the same position for long periods.
  • Prior Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT).


  • Swollen enlarged veins under the skin seen most commonly over the calf and thigh regions. 
  • Spider veins, which are mild varicose veins that look like a fine network of red or blue lines just under the skin. 
  • Leg swelling around the ankle region, worse after prolonged periods of standing. 
  • Patients also feel an uncomfortable aching pain sensation. 
  • In more severe cases, the skin around the ankle and inner calf region can become darkened or pigmented, itchy and scaly (venous eczema) and develop recurrent skin infections (cellulitis). 
  • The skin can break down and non-healing venous ulcers can develop. Sometimes, the engorged varicosities can rupture, causing profuse bleeding.


Varicose veins are diagnosed with clinical examination and ultrasound scans. The ultrasound scan is essential, as it will determine the cause, degree and extent of the varicose veins.

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  • Conservative non-surgical treatment includes the use of tight compression stockings. The stockings are very useful for alleviating symptoms and for preventing the progression of disease. 
  • Traditional open surgery known as high-tie and vein stripping – this method requires general anesthesia and requires a night’s stay in hospital. Open surgery is often associated with greater pain and a slower process.
  • Newer minimally invasive endovenous vein ablation surgery – These methods require a small puncture under ultrasound scan and insertion of probes inside the vein to shrink and close off the vein using either heat or mechanical/ chemical means . Due to its minimally invasive nature, these endovenous techniques can be done under local anaesthesia and light sedation, usually as a day surgery case with same day discharge. Post-procedure recovery is also much faster with patients returning to their normal daily activities within 1-2 days.


These include:

            Radio-Frequency Ablation (RFA)

            Venaseal/ Venablock  Glue Closure 

            Clarivein Treatment


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